Built around 2550 BC, when Pharaoh Khufu was the Pharaoh of Egypt, the Great Pyramid ranks as the world’s largest and biggest cultural structure. According to scientific research that has been carried out over the years, it took 20,000 people 20 years to build the Great Pyramid.
The feat of building a pyramid as great as this in the manner described above might seem unbelievable. However, this is because we are considering it from the perspective of a more advanced time. Building the Pyramid is very possible for ancient Egyptians, only that it will take as long as it did because they were using bricks and woods.
What Led to the Creation Of Wheels?
It has been said that the first Pyramid in Egypt was built around 4,700 years ago. This was during the era of the Third Dynasty, and humans haven’t invented the wheel system. The lack of this invention meant that they assembled these pyramids all by themselves.
Owing to the fact that the pyramids were made with bulky stones such as granite and limestone, it was impossible to transport them from one place to another using wooden equipment and tools.
Who Constructed the Pyramids?
The closest scientific predictions of how the Pyramid was built are that ropes and ramps played a significant role in the assemblage of the structures by the Egyptians. When mathematical principles were devised, it was revealed that Ancient Egyptians would have to lay down a new block every 150 seconds to be able to build the Pyramid in 20 years.
It has not been proved how exactly the ancient Egyptians built the enormous pyramids. Still, scientists believe that the complex task of constructing the pyramids was completed using a technology that is even more advanced than ours.
What the Pyramids Used to Look Like?
Compared to what they are now, which is a mixture of sand covered in dust, the pyramids used to look way different and even better back in the day. They used to be shiny under the desert sun as their surface layers were covered with shiny stones and bricks.
It is only unfortunate that in 1303 AD, an earthquake happened in Egypt that loosened the shiny stones covering the pyramids. Seeing this, the ancient Egyptians took off the shiny stones and constructed some other structures with them.
How Many Sides does the Pyramid Have?
The above question is important because the Great Pyramid is nothing like the usual Pyramid that is known to most people. A regular pyramid is a geometric structure with four sides; the Great Pyramid is slightly different. When examined critically, the Great Pyramid has eight sides, and the best way to discover this is by flying over the Pyramid with an airplane.
Some archeologists are of the opinion that this Pyramid was built this way to stop the stones from shifting. Some others argued that the Pyramid had eight sides as a result of erosion on it. None of these claims have been established with facts, but the wind couldn’t have caused them.
Proof of Advanced Tools
Scientists have said over the years that the ancient Egyptians had more advanced tools than we do. A piece of evidence to support this claim was found in Khufu’s Sarcophagus. Khufu was the mastermind behind the construction of the Pyramid. Tools that were strong enough to drill holes into granite blocks were discovered in his sarcophagus.
It is only logical to conclude that the stone was brought to the place before. The sarcophagus stood out from other stones inside the Pyramid because it had holes in it that must have been drilled by humans. Owing to the fact that the stone is granite, the strong stone couldn’t have been drilled by anything other than an advanced tool.
The Maze Under the Pyramid:
Information about the maze underneath the Pyramid has been made public for years; however, the questions as to how it got there and where it leads remain unanswered. The labyrinth was made with limestone, and popular archeological materials were found within it. Despite years of research, archaeologists are yet to find the end of the maze.
Some people have argued that this is not the case, and scientists are only hiding their discoveries from the public. Whether this is true or not, all we know is that the underground maze of the Great Pyramid stretches 55 miles of south Cairo underneath Hawara.
A Secret Chamber:
Many things had been discovered in the Great pyramids, and the most recent is the secret chamber there. The discovery of this mysterious chamber was only possible with the help of super technological imaging that records fragment particles deep within the rocks. This technology is similar to X-ray imaging, but it is more advanced.
The images from these machines were not clear and were of low quality, so scientists are not sure whether it is a single chamber or a lot of series. It is also uncertain what purpose the chamber is meant to serve and whether there are some things hidden inside it that could affect our perspective on the modern world.
On the Verge of New Discoveries:
Archeologists have theorized over the years that some type of energy might be emitting from the pyramids, although this remains unfounded by evidence. After discovering the secret chamber, scientists became somewhat convinced that the Pyramid receives electromagnetic energy from the sun.
Things got more interesting when it was discovered that a lot more energy could be found in the chamber where the remains of Pharaoh Khufu and his wife rested.
Things that were Discovered Inside the Chambers
A precious statue was found in the chambers of the Pyramid by scientists on August 1st, 2018. This was during a restoration project, and it marked the most recent discovery made by archeologists in the pyramids. The statue was found in the Pyramid of Djoser in Saqqara, and it was the statue of Osiris, the Egyptian god of the underworld. This discovery was surprising because of where they were found.
The Osiris is a very notable Egyptian god, and one would not expect that its statue will be found between an unknown crack of a wall. No one could answer the reason why the statue was placed there too.
Mysterious Boxes in the Tunnels
One of the archeologists involved in the Pyramid research, Brien Forrester, made one of the most startling discoveries inside the tunnels. He found 20 rock boxes built from Aswan granite. These boxes were cut with remarkable accuracy, which lends further credibility to claims that the civilization that built the pyramids were far more advanced than we knew.
What is more interesting is that each of these boxes weighs 100 tons. Some speculate that the boxes were burial sites for prized animals and livestock, but these claims cannot be proved. Further speculation persists that the boxes contain some type of energy. But authorities have solidly debunked the claims. The purpose of these boxes are a source of mystery and remain open to speculation.
Some Chambers Generate Heat:
Is this an intentional function of their construction or just an accidental consequence of it? We are not sure; what we are certain of is that some chambers in the Great Pyramid do generate heat while others remain cool. Experts offer the opinion that this could be a result of ancient heat generator technology.
The heating chambers were located at the top of the Pyramid. Because of this, there is speculation that the heat could result from sun rays on the chambers. We are unsure which is true as every chamber seems to contain its mystery. Perhaps the answer is in other chambers.
More Mysteries: Were the Great Pyramids Tombs or Power Plants?
Popular accounts refer to the Great Pyramids as the resting place of Egyptian Kings and Pharaohs. Recent discoveries reveal that the Pyramids might be more than the final resting place for the dead. Some conspiracy theorists assert that ancient Egypt had access to electricity, and the pyramids were giant power plants.
The proof is found in the pyramids themselves. Some etchings show ancient Egyptians holding torches that appear to be powered by an electric source. Water flowing through the underground tunnels can also create an electric current. Additional scientific evidence reveals that the shafts in the pyramids were crafted from slightly radioactive granite; this ionizes the air and creates an environment comparable to a conductive insulating cable.
Built with Air Shafts:
While still on the subject of incredible discoveries, no one knows why the Great Pyramid is the only Pyramid that is built with airshafts. These air shafts were designed to align with the stars, which is a whole new mystery. What is more incredible is how the ancient Egyptians cut such precise shafts without advanced tools? And where did they get the knowledge to place them in alignment with the stars? More mysteries.
In determining the reason for the shaft design, some reference ancient Egyptians’ reverence for the afterlife. They reason that the star alignment shafts have to do with sending the dead to the afterlife. More radical conspiracy theorists suppose that the shafts were used to signal aliens.
The Great Pyramid Doors
If you think you have heard it all, the entrance doors to the pyramids are estimated to weigh an incredible 20 tons, and you could push them open with one shove. Of course, the mind rebels at the thought of a human being able to open a 20-ton door with only a single push. But this is a testament to the incredible construction.
These doors were constructed with such precise balance that it would be possible for you to open them in one shove. The doors were first discovered in the 1800s during the Great Pyramid exploration, and it took very little effort to open them. This begs the question, how did this ancient civilization create such perfectly balanced doors with no advanced technology?
What is in the Big Void?
Another intriguing discovery made in the Great Pyramid is a mysterious chamber with no apparent use. This chamber is called the big void. The chamber is called the big void because it is a large empty room, and it is not connected with any passages inside the Great Pyramid. This makes you wonder why the big void was built and why it was isolated from other chambers. Some speculate that it is to keep something in or prevent people from entering.
Scientists believe the chamber was built as a sort of support to the Pyramid; that is, to relieve some of the weight and prevent the Grand Gallery from closing in. Tourists can access the Grand Gallery if they hunch down through a long tunnel. The big void is almost equal to the Grand Gallery and sits directly above the Grand Gallery.
Lined Up with the Stars:
Ancient Egyptians spent a lot of time studying the constellations and attempting to read the skies; we see some justification for that here. It would seem that ancient Egyptians enjoyed aligning their construction with outer space. The shafts were not the only piece of construction that were aligned with the stars; all three Pyramids of Giza were also aligned with outer space.
The Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure pyramids perfectly aligned with the famous Orion’s Belt stars. The pyramids were aligned with Alnitak, Alnilam, and Mintaka. What makes this discovery puzzling is that the Orion’s Belt wasn’t discovered until 2,000 years after constructing the pyramids. How did ancient Egyptians manage to accurately measure the placement of stars and build their pyramids to align with these constellations?
Are Pyramids Connected with the Sun?
There are various speculations as to who built the pyramids and for what reason. Some believe the pyramids were built by aliens and were supposed to be a beacon to other aliens. Some also believe that it was built by a more advanced human civilization. Others subscribe to the notion that the pyramids were used as power plants in ancient Egypt. If these explanations don’t sound plausible, there’s alternative speculation, which is more interesting.
Some cultural experts speculate that the pyramids were built to help the dead King ascend to Sun Ra, the God of the Sun. This explanation clarifies why the pyramids are in perfect alignment with the stars. And also why tombs are usually filled with objects that could aid the dead King in the afterlife.
Better Precision than the Royal Observatory:
It is possible that ancient Egyptians were more advanced than we knew. Do you know how old Egyptians one-upped modern technology in discovering Orion’s Belt 2,000 years earlier? It has been discovered that the pyramid chambers also point north with much greater precision than the Royal Observatory in Greenwich.
The accuracy of this feat is incredible as it points to the use of advanced technology and strategies. And we are not speaking about pointing towards the random or general direction of North, rather the specific direction towards magnetic North. The Royal Observatory in Greenwich, founded in 1675, sets the general time to GTC (Greenwich Mean Time or Prime Meridian Time). Setting up the Royal Observatory alone took several centuries; what technologies and strategies were ancient Egyptians working with to discover the north centuries earlier and with better precision?
Evidence of Mathematical Constants
Again, there is enough evidence to prove that ancient Egyptians had foreknowledge of mathematical constants on late modern discoveries. If you subtract the length of the Great Pyramid from its height, the result you get is 314.16 – 100 times Pi. If you then add the two sides together in meters, the result also equals 100 times Phi. This is known as the Golden Number used in architecture, art, and theology.
This discovery is baffling because Pi was not established as a mathematical constant until 1793, centuries after ancient Egyptians had discovered it. It is important to note that ancient Egyptians used cubits to take measurements, and one cubit is equal to 0.536 meters. This means the circumference of a circle that has the diameter of a single cubit equals Pi. This is proof that ancient Egyptians were capable of and already doing complex mathematical calculations before we even conceived them.
Structures Around the Pyramids:
Necropolis, have you heard of the term before? Necropolis translates into the City of the Dead; it describes the Pyramid’s immediate surroundings or structures. Today, the pyramids stand alone in a desert area, but that was not always the case, as would be later discovered. In their heyday, the pyramids were surrounded by many structures and had people taking care of them. Even today, and despite being surrounded by the Necropolis, the pyramids are still important town structures.
Other structures surrounding the pyramids included temples for honoring the dead rulers and religious buildings dedicated to relevant gods. The priests and staff who worked in the temples and looked after the dead kings after death also lived close to the pyramids. And, of course, the Great Sphinx of Giza was also situated near the pyramids.
Who Built the Great Sphinx?
Like the mystery surrounding the pyramids, no one knows who constructed the Sphinx and why it was built. The Sphinx is subject to a lot of speculations, and conspiracy theorists never stop inventing new stories. Two theories examine the question of who was behind the construction of the Sphinx. The first theory credits the creation of the Sphinx to Khafre, who also built the second-largest Pyramid. If this theory is true, then the Sphinx was built around 2500 BCE.
But some archeologists and scholars determine the Sphinx be of an older time, even older than Khafre himself. On this basis, the second theory credits the building of the Sphinx to Khufu, who was Khafre’s father and also the mastermind behind the construction of the Great Pyramid.
17 New Pyramids in Giza
As if the Great Sphinx was not enough, Giza is about to be the site of 17 new pyramids. Archeologists and scientists, using satellite technology, have uncovered 17 new pyramids around Giza. The satellite, which was used to detect hidden structures underneath the Earth’s surface, also led to the discovery of over 1,000 burial sites hidden in the earth.
Already, crews are on the ground studying and examining two of the newly unearthed pyramids. Even though new pyramids are still being discovered and studied, the oldest one remains the Pyramid of Djoser.
The Pyramid of Djoser
The Pyramid of Djoser is the oldest of all pyramids and is believed to have been constructed in the 27th century BC. This Pyramid is situated in an enclosed courtyard and is surrounded by numerous ritual embellishments and temples. Unlike the Great Pyramid, this is covered by burial sites, graves, and temples for honoring the dead. The body of the Pyramid has also endured a lot of damage as weather conditions have severely corroded it.
The Pyramid of Djoser also features a smaller pyramid structure known as the mudbrick structure. This feature comprises multiple complexes and is unique as it is not present in the structure of other pyramids. A similar concept to other pyramids is a burial chamber, but no body was found in the chamber when the Pyramid was discovered. However, there are indications that the Pyramid may have been King Djoser’s tomb.
A Structure Taller than the Pyramid of Giza
The Pyramid of Giza was the tallest building in the world for a total of 3,871 years. A taller structure was not built until the Lincoln Cathedral in London in 1311 — about 4,000 years after. It is, however, incredible that ancient Egyptians completed the Pyramid of Giza in 20 years, but it took over 200 years for England to finish the construction of the Lincoln Cathedral.
A look at both structures will convince you that the Pyramid of Giza is still the tallest of the two. That was because the Cathedral’s central spire collapsed in 1594, and it was never reconstructed after that. This essentially means the Lincoln Cathedral was the tallest building in the world for a total of 238 years. Its importance lies not in the record it set but in the one it broke.
The Last Man Standing:
Of the Seven Ancient Wonders of the World, the Great Pyramid is the only one still standing. The Statue of Zeus was destroyed by an earthquake, the same as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. The majestic Temple of Artemis was wrecked and sacked by a Christian mob in 401 CE, and the Colossus of Rhodes was torn down in 654 CE. None of these structures could withstand the full brunt of nature’s wrath like the Great Pyramid and other pyramids.
The Great Pyramid was built between 2584 – 2561 BCE. This ancient structure had the same natural enemies that the other 7 Ancient Wonders of the World had. The only difference is that throughout the centuries, whenever inclement and harsh weather conditions tested it, the Pyramid endured it and came out on top.
On the West Embankment:
Due to certain biases, the ancient Egyptians built their pyramids on the same side of the river Nile — on the west dam. The pyramids were also all facing the sun as it was believed that the sun was the home of the dead. An alternative reason for building pyramids on the west dam is due to fear of grave robbers. Egyptian kings feared being robbed after death, so they took all their wealth to the grave or tomb.
The belief that the pyramids were a safe place to store wealth after death was soon debunked as the wealth only made pyramids a convenient target for grave robbers. The pyramids were designed so that only those who knew their way around the secret passages could reach the burial chambers. But this was not enough to deter grave robbers who still managed to navigate their way around the treasure trove.
Little Afterlife Statues:
Ancient Egyptians had many customs and traditions; perhaps one of the most important is their belief in the afterlife. This is why they bury their dead with things they believe will be useful to them after death. These things include gold, jewelry, clothes, and even food.
Another thing that Egyptians tried to take to the afterlife were little afterlife statues. It is believed that these statues will come to life in the afterlife and take care of all the needs of the dead King. One particular tomb had over 400 of these little statues in it.
A Failed Attempt at Destroying the Pyramids
In the 12th century, Al-Aziz, a Kurdish ruler, aspired to demolish the legacy of the ancient Egyptians. Al-Aziz’s reason for wanting to demolish the pyramids was uncertain, but he went along to implement his plan to destroy the giant structures. He soon found out that any attempt to destroy the pyramids will cost as much as it took to erect them in the first place. He abandoned his mission not long after.
That was not all; before giving up on this dream, Al-Aziz managed to leave his mark on Menkaure’s Pyramid. He left a large slash on one side of the Pyramid; the slash is still visible today. That more damage was not done to the pyramids is a testament to the amount of thought and preparation that went into making them sturdy and unyielding.
Aligned With the Stars, Seen From the Moon:
Scientists estimate that the Pyramids could potentially be seen from the moon due to their reflective surfaces. The pyramids can also be seen in all their glory by people residing in the hills and mountains of neighboring Israel.
Another name given to the pyramids by the ancient Egyptians is “Ikhet,” which means Glorious Light. We would probably never know how brightly the pyramids shine because harsh weather conditions have degraded most surfaces.
Temperature Control Inside the Pyramids:
Do you know that although certain parts of the Pyramid generate heat, the structure itself never goes above a comparatively cold temperature of 68 degrees Fahrenheit? Official temperature readings reveal that the most common temperature in a pyramid is 68 degrees Fahrenheit. How this is possible is not certain, but we know that while the pyramids themselves are a marvel, they house some intriguing mysteries.
The pyramids also have a ventilation system that is made of airshafts. In case of heat, these shafts are opened to let in cool air and cause a drop in temperature. However, what is incredible is that no matter the temperature outside, the temperature inside the Pyramid is always at 68 degrees Fahrenheit. This marvelous feat of engineering was achieved without advanced technology.
Did Slaves Build the Pyramids?
Contrary to popular belief, the pyramids were not built with slave labor but by paid workers. Studies reveal that the pyramids were designed and built by paid workers who spent hours working on the structure. The pyramids could only have been built by a specialized labor force — people who had studied architecture and building. These people were paid and appreciated for their skills.
In 2010, archeologists discovered the tombs of paid workers as conclusive evidence that those who worked on the pyramids were not slave workers. These people had their bodies preserved in the sand and were buried with food items explains that they were not poor slaves.
The First Pyramids
Pyramids are geometrical shapes with four sides and a pointed tip that points towards the sky. But not all pyramids have four sides or a pointed tip. The earliest pyramids had flat surfaces and did not resemble typical pyramids with triangular sides. However, like other Pyramids, they were also used as tombs.
The Pyramid of Djoser is the oldest in Egypt, and it also has a flat top. Irrespective of the shape, side, or top of the pyramids, they all contained burial chambers. Flat-top pyramids are known as Mastabas.
The Tombs of the People:
Mastabas are flat-top pyramids; these pyramids have their burial chambers hidden underground. It is not Pharaohs or Kings that are buried in these small tombs but their loyal servants. These servants were not important or wealthy enough to warrant their pyramids, but they were laid to rest in the flat-top Mastabas.
The Egyptian belief influenced this practice in the afterlife. They believe that their buried subjects will serve and tend them in the next world. There was also the belief that these souls will guide the soul of the king to the afterlife.
The Brain Behind the First Pyramid
If you have seen the acclaimed movie “The Mummy,” then you are familiar with Imhotep. Imhotep was a real-life person; he was the brain behind the construction of the first Pyramid. He was also Djoser’s chief minister. Imhotep designed and supervised the building of the first Pyramid from the laying of the first block to the finishing of its pointing tip.
Imhotep was one of the finest architects of his time. Due to his achievements and contribution to constructing the first Pyramid, Djoser commissioned a statue to present Imhotep’s name in the King’s court.
The Egyptian Afterlife:
We have already established the pyramids as the vehicle that guides the king’s and pharaoh’s souls into the afterlife. The afterlife is one of the most important aspects of Egyptian culture; they believe there is life after death. And the afterlife is like you returning home after a long journey.
The Egyptians also believe that life after death is free from all hardships and suffering of any kind. When burying their dead, Egyptians bury them with precious items and things they believe will be useful to the dead or missed by the dead. They do all these to ensure that the dead are comfortable in the afterlife. This is why Pharaohs take all their wealth with them to the grave.